ہمارے بارے میں
CHESS IN PAKISTAN
پاکستان میں شطرنج
فاتحین شطرنج پاکستان
ملکی استادان شطرنج
HISTORY OF CHESS
STRATEGY & TACTICS
صف آرائ وفراست
درمیا نی کھیل
اختتا م کی چالیں
The pieces are divided, by convention, into White
and Black sets. Each player, referred to by the color of his pieces,
begins the game with sixteen pieces: these comprise one king, one
queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. White
moves first. The colors are chosen either by a friendly agreement,
by a game of chance or by a tournament director. The players
alternate moving one piece at a time (with the exception of
castling, when two pieces are moved at the same time). Pieces are
moved to either an unoccupied square, or one occupied by an
opponent's piece, capturing it and removing it from play. With one
exception (en passant), all pieces capture opponent's pieces by
moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies.
When a king is under direct attack by one (or
possibly two) of the opponent's pieces, the player is said to be in
check. When in check, only moves that remove the king from
attack are permitted. The player must not make any move that would
place his king in check. The object of the game is to checkmate the
opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and
there are no moves that remove the king from attack.
- The king can move only one square
horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Once in every game, each
king is allowed to make a special move, known as castling.
Castling consists of moving the king two squares towards a rook,
then placing the rook (immediately) on the far side of the king.
Castling is only permissible if all of the following conditions
- The player must never have moved both the king
and the rook involved in castling;
- There must be no pieces between the king and the
- The king may not currently be in check, nor may
the king pass through squares that are under attack by enemy
pieces. As with any move, castling is illegal if it would place
the king in check.
- The king and the rook must be on the same rank
(to exclude castling with a promoted pawn).
- The rook moves any number of vacant
squares vertically or horizontally (it is also involved in the
king's special move of castling);
- The bishop moves any number of vacant
squares in any direction diagonally. Note that a bishop never
changes square color, therefore players speak about
"light-squared" or "dark-squared" bishops;
- The queen can move any number of vacant
squares diagonally, horizontally, or vertically;
- The knight can jump over occupied squares
and moves two spaces horizontally and one space vertically or vice
versa, making an "L" shape. A knight in the middle of the board
has eight squares to which it can move. Note that every time a
knight moves, it changes square color.
- Pawns have the most complex rules of
- A pawn can move forward one square, if that
square is unoccupied. If it has not yet moved, the pawn has the
option of moving two squares forward, if both squares in front
of the pawn are unoccupied. A pawn cannot move backward.
- When such an initial two square advance is made
that puts that pawn horizontally adjacent to an opponent's pawn,
the opponent's pawn can capture that pawn "en passant" as if it
moved forward only one square rather than two, but only on the
immediately subsequent move.
- Pawns are the only pieces that capture
differently than they move. They can capture an enemy piece on
either of the two spaces adjacent to the space in front of them
(i.e., the two squares diagonally in front of them), but cannot
move to these spaces if they are vacant.
- If a pawn advances all the way to its eighth
rank, it is then promoted (converted) to a queen, rook, bishop,
or knight of the same color. In practice, the pawn is almost
always promoted to a queen.
With the exception of the knight, pieces cannot jump
over each other. One's own pieces ("friendly pieces") cannot be
passed if they are in the line of movement, and a friendly piece can
never replace another friendly piece. Enemy pieces cannot be passed,
but they can be "captured". When a piece is captured (or taken), the
attacking piece replaces the enemy piece on its square (en passant
being the only exception). The captured piece is thus removed from
the game and may not be returned to play for the remainder of the
game. The king cannot be captured, only put in check. If a player is
unable to get the king out of check, checkmate results, with the
loss of the game.
Chess games do not have to end in checkmate — either
player may resign if the situation looks hopeless. Games also may
end in a draw (tie). A draw can occur in several situations,
including draw by agreement, stalemate, threefold repetition of a
position, the fifty move rule, or a draw by impossibility of
checkmate (usually because of insufficient material to
Besides casual games without exact timing, chess is
also played with a time control, mostly by club and professional
players. The timing ranges from long games played up to seven hours
to shorter rapid chess games lasting usually 30 minutes or one hour
per game. Even shorter is blitz chess with a time control of three
to fifteen minutes for each player and bullet chess (under three
minutes). If the player's time runs out, he loses.